A Trade Agreement Reached By Japan And The United States In 1905

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The Treaty of Portsmouth officially ended the Russo-Japanese War of 1904/05. The negotiations took place in August in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and were partly negotiated by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. The final agreement was signed in September 1905 and confirmed the Japanese presence in southern Manchuria and Korea and ceded the southern half of Sakhalin Island to Japan. In 1994, the Portsmouth Peace Processing Forum was established by the Japan-America Society of New Hampshire to recall the Portsmouth Peace Treaty with the first formal meeting between Japanese and Russian scholars and diplomats in Portsmouth since 1905. As the Treaty of Portsmouth is one of the most powerful symbols of peace in the North Pacific region and the most important common peace history of Japan, Russia and the United States, the Forum should examine, from a Japanese, Russian and American perspective, the history of the Portsmouth Treaty and its relevance to current issues related to the North Pacific region. The forum aims to focus modern science on international issues in the spirit of the Portsmouth Peace Treaty. [8] During the first two decades of the twentieth century, relations between the United States and Japan were marked by growing tensions and attempts to reduce the risk of conflict with diplomacy. Each side had territory and interests in Asia, which they feared the other side would threaten them. The treatment of Japanese immigrants by the United States and competition for economic and trade opportunities in China have also exacerbated tensions.

At the same time, the territorial claims of each Pacific country have served as the basis for several agreements between the two nations, with each government seeking to protect its own strategic and economic interests. The Japanese asked U.S. President Roosevelt to negotiate a peace agreement, and representatives of the two nations met in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1905. To maintain the balance of power and economic opportunities in the region, Roosevelt preferred that the war end under conditions that left Russia and Japan with a role in northeastern China. Although excited by Japanese military victories, Roosevelt worried about the consequences for American interests if Japan succeeded in driving Russia out altogether. By the early 1890s, Chinese influence had increased in Korea. In 1894, Korea asked for China`s help in suppressing a local rebellion. When the Chinese informed Tokyo, Japan rushed to Korea. Once the rebellion was stunned, neither side withdrew. The Sino-Japanese War officially broke out in July 1894. The Japanese armed forces proved superior both on land and on the water, and by losing its Northern Fleet, China complained for peace.

The peace treaty negotiated at Shimonoseki was concluded on 17 formally signed on 1 April 1895; Both sides recognized Korea`s independence, and China ceded Formosa, the Pescadores Islands and the Liaotung Peninsula to Japan, granted Japan all the rights enjoyed by the European powers, and made important economic concessions, including the opening of new contract ports and significant compensation in gold. A trade agreement granting Japan special tax exemptions and other trade and production privileges was signed in 1896. Japan thus marked its own exemption from unequal treaties by imposing even harsher conditions on its neighbor.

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